Understanding the basics of marijuana basics is especially important to individuals who opt for a marijuana home garden installation or a weed lover who is just curious.
If you smoke marijuana often, then you can recollect times when one smoke blew you away. The smell, the taste was so out of this world.
You pick up another joint looking for the experience you had before, and this new joint doesn’t quite make the cut. And you wonder why?
Well, the answer is in the genetic makeup of the marijuana and the environment in which the cannabis was grown.
Agriculturalists tell us that the final product of a plant results from the plant’s genetic makeup and the conditions – environment – it is grown.
Different environments will result in plants so different in shape, size, and structure even though they have the same genetic structure.
This article will help marijuana growers interested in marker-assisted selection or marker aided selection (MAS) of their weed. In other words, knowing the genetic makeup of your marijuana you want will help you grow a consistent crop with the consistent results you wish – whether in terms of quality of the flowers or speed of growth.
By knowing your desired marijuana genotype, you can buy the right prop207 marijuana seeds or get the right outdoor grow house kit.
What you will learn from this article
- Basic Marijuana – cannabis – Genetics Terminology
- Tracing the origins of marijuana strains
- Types of Marijuana Strains and their genetics
- Hybrid Cannabis Genetics and varieties
- What affects the strain genetics of marijuana?
- Last remarks on marijuana genetics
Basic Marijuana – cannabis – Genetics Terminology
When you get into the marijuana world, especially if you adventure to growing your weed in your marijuana home garden installation, then it pays to understand the jargon on marijuana genetics.
Speak with vendors or with peers in the same language.
Here are the basic cannabis genetics terms you need to know.
|Marijuana genetics term||Explanation|
|Allele||An allele is one of two, or more, forms of a given gene variant. Marijuana plants have two alleles for each gene.|
|Backcross||A backcross is the offspring of a hybrid strain bred with the original parent plant.|
|Crossbreed||A crossbreed is a marijuana strain that has been bred from a marijuana plant with different genetic makeup.|
|F1 generation||F1 is short for “first generation hybrid.”
An F1 is the offspring of breeding two strains with totally different genotypes.
If this hybrid is then bred with another F1 from the same batch, we get another hybrid – F2.
Repeated, we get F3, F4, etc.
|Gene||In biology, a gene is a basic heredity unit and a sequence of nucleotides in DNA or RNA that encodes the synthesis of a gene product, either RNA or protein.
Regarding cannabis, a gene is a specific DNA sequence in a cannabis plant.
|Genotype||A marijuana genotype is the complete set of genes in a cannabis plant.
A genotype is an organism’s complete set of genetic material. A genotype is often used to refer to a single gene or set of genes, such as the genotype for eye color.
The genes take part in determining the characteristics that are observable about the cannabis plant.
|Heirloom||Heirloom marijuana strains are those that have existed for generations. They are considered to have pure genetics because they have never been crossbred with any other strains.
These strains developed through natural pollination methods like wind, animals, or humans.
|IBL||IBL or inbred line cannabis is a strain of marijuana that has been hybridized to the point that the strain is almost different from its original family.|
|Landrace||A landrace is a variety of cannabis that come from regions where cannabis plants have been growing for a very long time in the wild.|
|Phenotype||The genotype of a cannabis plant defines a phenotype. It shows the observable characteristics of a marijuana plant in a restricted environment.|
|Poly-hybrids||Ploy-hybrids are crossbreeds of two different hybrid plants with other genotypes.|
|Selfing||Selfing is when a mother cannabis plant pollinates herself.
Using chemicals, breeders can stress plants to produce male flowers, making the pollen that pollinates the female flowers of the same plant or marijuana clone of the same mother.
Tracing the origins of marijuana strains
Marijuana is believed to have come from the tropics along the equator and the Hindu Kush region of Pakistan (probably where Kush, a popular name for weed, came from).
The natural environment was conducive for Landraces – a marijuana variety that has grown in the wild for a long time, probably for centuries – grows in the wild regions where cannabis plants have been growing for a very long time in the wild. Adapting to the wild environment, these original species are the purest cannabis genetics.
The known varieties of the Landraces are the Sativa and the Indica cannabis.
Types of Marijuana Strains and their genetics
Marijuana or cannabis strains fall into two major categories, 1. Pure cannabis and, 2. Hybrids.
The pure cannabis strains are Cannabis Indica, Cannabis Sativa, and Cannabis Ruderalis.
The Hybrid cannabis varieties result from experimenting with three pure varieties to create new varieties with unique genetic traits.
The Cannabis sativa strain has been cultivated through the ages for recreational use, spiritual connotations, and fiber, medicinal value, and seed oil.
Cannabis Sativa is thought to have come from the warm equatorial tropics of South East Asia, Thailand, Colombia, and Mexico.
Cannabis Sativa plants grow into tall plants reaching heights of 4.5 meters.
Proportionate to their height, they have long branches and internodes with narrow blade-like leaves.
Their vegetative period can last up to six months. Thus, the Sativa is known to have a high yield but with a lower THC.
Its long vegetative period makes it less attractive to indoor marijuana growers.
Some other common effects of Sativa include:
Increased focus, enhanced creativity, nausea, appetite, headache and migraine relief, pain relief, fatigue relief, depression relief, and muscle relaxation
Cannabis Indica is another pure cannabis strain. Its origins can be traced to Morrocco, the Hindu Kush mountains of Pakistan and Afghanistan.
Cannabis Indica plants are short, with heights ranging between two to four feet.
Indica plants go from seed to flower in twelve weeks, sometimes less depending on the genotype and the growing conditions.
Because of its height, cannabis Indica is often the one grown indoors.
Cannabis Indica is known to help with several conditions like anxiety, appetite, muscle spasms, nausea, sleep apnea, chronic pain, insomnia, lupus, and fibromyalgia.
Hybrid Cannabis Genetics and varieties
As we mentioned earlier, hybrids result from combing any of the three pure cannabis genetic types to achieve a certain effect.
There are many different types of hybrid varieties categorized by nature and method of production. Let’s discuss them one by one.
IBL – Inbred Line
IBL or inbred line cannabis is a strain of marijuana that has been hybridized to the point that the strain is almost different from its original family.
IBLs often share genetic traits without variation in phenotype.
F1 is short for “first generation hybrid.”
An F1 is the offspring of breeding two strains with totally different genotypes. Ideally, an F1 hybrid is a result of crossing separate Inbred Lines.
F2, F3, F4, F4 Hybrids
If we cross breed an F1 with another F1, we get an F2 hybrid.
The same applies to when we cross an F2 with another F2; we get an F3.
The more we crossbreed, the higher the chances that new breeds will not have the same genetic structure as5as the parent plant.
What affects the strain genetics of marijuana?
Marijuana genetics are affected by several factors, both natural and human interference. These include:
- The weather and environment the cannabis plant is growing in
- The process of creating cannabis hybrids
- The type of soils the crop is grown in
- The distance between the plant and the source of light
- The number of light marijuana plants receives.
- The angle at which light hits the cannabis plants
- The Photoperiod length
- Harvest times
The dark years before States across the U.S started legalizing marijuana saw a drastic shift in the genetic makeup of marijuana.
Cultivating marijuana indoors forced growers to tinker with the Landrace marijuana varieties to create a crop that grew faster, a crop with a shorter harvest time, or just about any appearance, flavor, or high effect.
For a fact, the ability to play around with the genetics of marijuana plants through tinkering – creating hybrids – meant the possibility of limitless cannabis varieties.
Last remarks on marijuana genetics
If you are going to be growing marijuana, it is imperative to know your marijuana genetics.
It will enable you to have a consistent result grown in the right conditions.
Whether you want more THC or CBD, our seeds are certified with the best marijuana genetic makeup for the best yields.